POTW #7: African or European?

Strurnus Vulgaris
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I thought I'd stick with the avian theme today: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) on Boston Common, 16 Sept 2007.
focal length: 432 mm, aperture: f/3.5, shutter: 1/160, distance: 2.5 meters

It is estimated that the North American population of european starlings numbers around 200 million. All these birds descend from a population of 60-100 individuals which were brought from Europe and released in New York's Central Park in the early 1890's. This specimen is a juvenile. Adults are more predominantly black.